Exercise 1.3 Establishing Conventions

The exercise tasks us to use multiple resources to find at least 12 examples from 18th and 19th Century Landscape Painters. Then to list the commonalities which can be seen in these paintings.

Using Reference books, web search engines and online articles; I selected the following.

Richard Parkes Bonington (1802-1828)

Richard_Parkes_Bonington_005 (1)

Figure 1. Normandy (1823), Public Work

Peter De Wint (1784-1849)

Roman Canal, Lincolnshire c.1840 by Peter De Wint 1784-1849

Figure 2. Roman Canal , Lincolnshire (c.1840),

John Sell Cotman (1782-1842)
Llanthony Abbey 1801 by John Sell Cotman 1782-1842Figure 3, Llanthony Abbey (1801), Private Work,

 


Samuel Scott (1702-1772)
An Arch of Westminster Bridge c.1750 by Samuel Scott c.1702-1772Figure 4. An Arch of Westminster Bridge (c.1750), Private Commission for Sir Lawrence Dundas

William James Mueller (1812-1845)
View of Bologna: Capriccio with Eastern Figures c.1835 by William James M?ller 1812-1845Figure 5. View of Bolognia: Capriccio with Eastern Figures, (c 1835),

Michael Angelo Rooker
ma rooker south east view of winsor castleFigure 6. South View of Windor Castle, 1776, Private Commission, 

John Robert Cozens (1752-1797)
JR Cozens The valley of the Eisak Near Brixen in the TyrollFigure 7. The Valley of the Eisak Near Brixen in the Tyrol, 1783/84, 

 


Fredrick Erwin Church (1826-1900)
FE Church View to CotopaxiFigure 8. View of Cotopaxi, 1857, Private Commision for Walter Wright

Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900)
1911.4.1_1.tifFigure 9. Aurora Borealis, 1865, Smithsonian Museum,

Asher Brown Durand (1796–1886)
AB Durand Landscape with BirchesFigure 10. Landscape with Birches, c 1855, sold to Jonathan Sturges

Thomas Cole (1801-1848)
1992.14Figure 11. The Fountain of Vaucluse, 1841

Thomas Hearne (1744-1817)
Thomas Herne Glastoburgh AbbeyFigure 12. Glastonbury Abbey (1795), Private Commision

Thomas Girtin (1775-1802
Thomas Girvin Bamburgh CastleFigure 13. Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland (1797-1799)

Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 – 1851)
D 5446Figure 14. Edinburgh from Calton Hill (1819)

 

List of commonalities:

  •  Use of the rule of thirds and lead in lines by many of the artists.
  • The majority of the works have people in the scene
  • A couple of works feature rural scenes feature domesticated animals, none as far as I have chosen feature wild animals.
  • Buildings are shown in the work as either dominating the scene as a ruin or as a main part of the background.
  • The majority are in ‘landscape’ orientation, although few are in the 16:9 ratio.
  • Trees/woodland feature heavily and include water either flowing as a waterfall or standing as a lake. Rivers are shown as calm.
  • The majority show rural scenes of the countryside which are idillyic
  • The sky is either dramatic or it is a blue calm sky
  • The lighting in the majority of the works is golden light.
  • Use of natural tones and vibrant greens

A few of the things that stood out to me:

  •  The shape of the frame fits the work rather than the other way around. It looks as if a few frames have been altered after the work was completed,
  • Later paintings take on the Sublime element, adding drama through colour or composition.
  • Commissions were made by patrons who wanted their “land seat” to be composed as impressive as possible.

 

The second part of the exercise tasks us with searching for and showing  landscape photographs from any era which conform he commonalities listed.

Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams The_Tetons_and_the_Snake_RiverFigure 15. The Tetons and Snake River (1942)
  • Use of the rule of thirds and lead in line
  • Dramatic Sky
  • Landscape orientation
  • Trees/woodland,
  • River is shown as calm.
  • Grand/Rural Scene

David Speight
David Speight Misty Dawn at Kilchurn castle
Figure 16. Kilchurn Castle at Sunrise  
  • Landscape orientation,
  • Trees/woodland feature heavily and include water either flowing as a waterfall or standing as a lake.
  • The rural scenes of the countryside which are idillyic
  • The sky is both dramatic and it is a blue calm sky
  • The lighting is golden light.
  • Use of natural tones and vibrant greens
  • Use of the rule of thirds

Carr Clifton
Carr Clifton
Figure 17 
  • Use of the rule of thirds
  • Landscape orientation,
  • The majority show rural scenes of the countryside which are idillyic
  • The sky is a blue calm sky
  • The lighting in the majority of the work is golden light.
  • Use of natural tones and vibrant greens

Franco Fontana
Franco Fontana Pugla 1987
Figure 18. Puglia, 1984  
  • Use of the rule of thirds
  • Landscape orientation
  • Trees/woodland feature
  • The majority show rural scenes of the countryside which are idillyic
  • The sky is a blue calm sky
  • The lighting is golden light.
  • Use of natural tones and vibrant greens

 

Conclusions

The paintings are much more dramatic, some capture the nightmare state of the sublime.
The paintings show ruined abbeys, the photographs mainly show city scenes or striking landscapes; few photographs that I could find would have a ruin as the main subject of the scene or work.

The photographs show a more realistic scene, the colours are more vibrant. The contrast is better in the photographs and in all they have a more natural feel to them.

Very photographs have people within the scene in the same composition as the paintings; I struggled to find photographic work and compositions which reflected a similar scene to the paintings.

Attribution of Figures

Figure 1,
Richard Parkes Bonington, (1823), Normandy [ONLINE]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Parkes_Bonington#/media/File:Richard_Parkes_Bonington_005.jpg[Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 2,
Peter De Wint, (1840), Roman Canal, Linconshire [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/de-wint-roman-canal-lincolnshire-n03480 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 3,
John Sell Cotman, (1801), Llanthony Abbey [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/cotman-llanthony-abbey-t00970 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 4,
Samuel Scott, (1750), An Arch of Westminster Bridge [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/samuel-scott-480 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 5,
William James Muller, (1835), View of Bologna: Capriccio with Eastern Figures [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/muller-view-of-bologna-capriccio-with-eastern-figures-n01463[Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 6,
Michael Angelo Rooker, (1776), South View of Windor Castle [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/search#/6/collection/700408/south-east-view-of-windsor-castle [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 7,
John Robert Cozens, (1783), The Valley of the Eisak Near Brixen in the Tyrol, [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/158411?search_no=5&index=1 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 8,
Frederic Edwin Church, (1857), View to Cotopaxi [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/exhibitions/American/artwork/76571 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 9,
Frederic Edwin Church, (1865), Aurora Borealis [ONLINE]. Available at: https://americanart.si.edu/artwork/aurora-borealis-4806 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 10,
Asher Brown Durand, (1855), Landscape with Birches [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/landscape-with-birches-33754 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 11,
Thomas Cole, (1841), The Fountain of Vaucluse [ONLINE]. Available at: https://collections.dma.org/artwork/4031115 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 12,
Thomas Hearne, (1795), Glastonbury Abbey [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.bmagic.org.uk/objects/1920P683/images/135700 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 13,
Thomas Girtin, (1797), Bamburgh Castle [ONLINE]. Available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Thomas_Girtin#/media/File:Thomas_Girtin_005.jpg[Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 14,
JMW Turner, (1819), Edinburgh from Calton Hill [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.nationalgalleries.org/art-and-artists/50144/edinburgh-calton-hill?artists[15158]=15158&search_set_offset=27#related-media-anchor [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 15,
Ansel Adams, (1942), Grand Tetons and the Snake River [ONLINE]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adams_The_Tetons_and_the_Snake_River.jpg [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 16,
David Speight. (2018), Kilchurn Castle at Sunrise {ONLINE]. Available from: https://www.davidspeightphotography.co.uk/portfolio/view/misty-dawn-at-kilchurn-castle-argyll-and-bute-scotland/scotland-landscape-photography

Figure 17,
Carr Clifton, (2018), Appalachian Mountains [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.phototraces.com/creative-photography/famous-landscape-photographers/ [Accessed 23 February 2018].

Figure 18,
Franco Fontana, (1987), Puglia [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.photoandcontemporary.com/work.aspx?wr=561&ar=3 [Accessed 23 February 2018].

 

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